Corporate Responsibility

贵金属:催化工业创新

由Volker Raab博士,总监全球段同质催化,Umicore贵金属化学

化学工业正在继续开发绿色的化学过程,以响应客户和消费者的需求,而贵金属催化剂行业也不例外。UMICORE PMC的Volker Raab博士解释了关键行业利益相关者如何应对这种需求,并获得有关如何改善现有和发展性珍贵金属催化过程的新见解。

Over the past few decades, the chemical industry has expanded its primary focus from product innovation to ensuring sustainable product and process development. As stakeholders begin to realize the benefits of green and environmentally friendly chemical processes, the industry is demanding innovative catalytic technologies that offer improved yields, high selectivity and lower energy requirements. When addressing sustainability, modern chemists are faced with many new and evolving challenges. Smarter and greener catalytic technologies can provide the chemical and pharmaceutical industries with the cutting-edge tools needed to overcome these difficulties.

By examining how key stakeholders in these industries are approaching catalytic process development, it is possible to gain insights into the challenges and key solutions that can be used to further their improvement.

Recognizing challenges

在寻求改善工业流程时,重要的是首先检查这些方法的开发方式。在教授了许多传统反应之后,例如Wittig或Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons(HWE)反应,过程化学家和工程师可能会感到需要坚持经典。但是,在进一步检查中,在许多情况下,这些反应的原子经济性差,并且效率低下。例如,发现多种工业用途(例如维生素和类胡萝卜素合成)可以产生大量废物,例如三苯基膦氧化物(TPPO)。由于TPPO很难与所需产品分离,因此此问题进一步更加复杂。1

While these challenges may not dramatically impact the efficiencies at lab scale, during scale-up these issues may severely affect process performance. As such, it is necessary to take a step back and understand how a process is developed and consider the conditions that the reaction is most likely to be carried out in. Only when these factors are extensively studied will it be possible to begin to develop sustainable, efficient and robust processes.

过程技术人员at the Umicore PMC facility in Tulsa, OK, USA. Precious metal catalysis is making its contribution to a cleaner and greener chemical industry.

Optimized chemistries

In many industries within the chemical sector, chemical commodities are passed on within their relevant sector as semi-finished products. As a result, these high-value products often undergo longer and less sustainable processes.

贵金属长期以来一直在催化系统中使用,通常为高价值和工业重要的化合物提供快速,更可持续的途径。但是,某些需要昂贵的过渡金属催化剂的途径通常会在反应过程中损失高百分比的催化剂,无论是通过特定的中间反应,还是未取代的金属分离和回收方法。氢甲基化,也称为OXO合成,是最重要的均匀催化剂介导的反应之一。它可以实现高度用途的醛官能团,这些功能组可用于进一步生产性能化学品和化学中间体,例如增塑剂,润滑剂等。可以通过含有催化剂的硫磺及其工业生存能力催化加氢甲基化反应,其依赖于选择性的结合。催化剂以及其分离的高效率(一旦使用)从反应流以及其所含的RH金属的回收利用中。在这种情况下,Umicore的全球高质量催化剂和高效金属回收的方法是保护这一珍贵金属投资的关键方法。这有助于确保反应或过程的长期盈利能力,同时有助于提高其生产率。

除了确保化学或药物反应途径既成本效率又是时间效率之外,行业还需要限制其过程的环境影响。催化长期以来一直处于绿色化学的最前沿,在分析新系统和过程时是必不可少的考虑因素。废物的产生以及高温和压力的使用都是许多行业都需要克服的常见问题,并且在确保经济性和原料的价值时是必不可少的考虑因素。一个这样的例子是由研究人员在聚合物化学方面发表的,它使用了Umicore的元理解催化剂来促进以前难以回收天然橡胶(NR)的困难过程。2The study, by Abbas et al, utilized cross-metathesis to degrade vulcanized rubber waste, promoting its conversion to norbornenes through a cycloaddition reaction. NR production amounts to about 13.3 million tonnes per year, and with incineration being the typical end-of-life treatment, alternatives had become an increasingly important time- and money-saver.3

日本杜库巴的UMICORE PMC工厂的生产控制。贵金属催化正在为更清洁,更绿色的化学工业做出贡献。

成功的工具

尽管已经很容易地将元理性技术应用于绝大多数领域,但其真实价值仍然不可忽视。188金宝慱亚洲体育app元理性有可能提供一种可持续的绿色反应综合方法。能够缩短复杂的反应步骤可以提高生产率,减少废物和能源消耗,减少溶剂,甚至减少CO2emission footprint of a reaction. Related to the sustainability component, metathesis reactions are increasingly being sought as alternatives to previously difficult reactions or processes.

成功的未来可能性似乎是无尽的。专门研究化学工业时,已经证明在许多制造业中,Methathesis已被证明是成功的。其中包括但绝不限于丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)处理的活性分子以及具有温度,腐蚀或磨蚀性能的功能聚合物的生产。4,5In these applications, metathesis has proven a key enabler for efficiency, allowing previously difficult reaction pathways in this area to be reached with relative ease.

Umicore PMC has been active in providing metathesis catalysts for more than a decade, and recognizes that this has not been done alone: collaborations within academia and industry have built the foundations of an unrivalled portfolio of intellectual property and metathesis catalysts that can be applied at an industrial scale. This portfolio, leveraged with multiple decades of expertise in the field, has enabled the continued growth of the range, and helped to establish new and exciting collaborations within both the academic and industrial setting.

Shaping sustainable pathways

对化学过程的需求不断增长,从而减少浪费,并为公司提供长期,绿色的未来,同时提供商业利益。因此,化学工业的未来无疑是环境友好的,有监管要求迫使清洁反应。新的合成过程正在利用低浓度的高反应化合物来增加吞吐量,并将反应提高到更清洁和成本效益。

UMICORE PMC提供了元理解催化剂与晚期均匀催化剂的组合,包括布赫瓦尔德催化剂和多代grubbs催化剂。多年的研究确保可以提供必要的制造能力,并且可以按所需的规模满足全球合作伙伴的高级催化剂需求。而且,通过进一步促进学术和工业合作伙伴的合作,可以克服任何反应瓶颈以及创建的下一代材料。

参考

  1. Davey, S. Wittig without waste.纳特。化学(2009) doi:10.1038/nchem.395.
  2. 纽鲍尔,阿巴斯,M M & Slugovc c, n转换atural rubber waste into ring-opening metathesis polymers with oligo-1,4-cis-isoprene sidechains.polym。化学9, 1763–1766 (2018).
  3. Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries. Rubber and Plastics News 2018. (2018).
  4. Tsantrizos,Y。S.et al.将烯烃环闭合分解为药物发现和发育中的强大工具 - 丙型肝炎病毒NS3蛋白酶的有效大环抑制剂。J. Organomet。化学691,5163–5171(2006)。
  5. Sinclair, F., Alkattan, M., Prunet, J. & Shaver, M. P. Olefin cross metathesis and ring-closing metathesis in polymer chemistry.polym。化学3385–3398 (2017).